Introduction to Game Types


The general idea of a game is that with which we are familiar with the context of parlor games. Starting from a given point, there is a sequence of personnel moves, at each of which one of the players chooses from among several possibilities; interspersed among these there may also be the chance or random moves such as throwing a die or shuffling a deck of cards. (Branden, 2013)

Examples of this type of game are chess, in which there are no chance moves, bridge, in which chance plays a much greater part, but in which skill is still important, and roulette, which is entirely a game of chance in which skill plays no part. The examples of bridge and chess help to point out another important element of a game. In fact, in a chess game, each player knows every move that has been made so far, while in bridge a player’s knowledge is usually very imperfect. Thus, in some games, a player is unable to determine which of several possible moves has actually been made, either by an opposing player or by chance. (Branden, 2013)

The practical result of this is that, when a player makes a move, he does not know the exact position of the game, and must make his move remembering that there are several possible actual positions. (Branden, 2013) Finally, at the end of a game, there is normally some payoff to the players which depends on the progress of the game. We may think of this as a function which assigns a payoff to each terminal position of the game.

In the game theory, different types of games help in the analysis of different types of problems. The different types of games are formed on the basis of the number of players involved in a game, the symmetry of the game, and cooperation among players. Four of the main game types are Cooperative and Non-Cooperative, Simultaneous and Sequential, Symmetric and Asymmetric, and Zero-Sum.