Symmetric/ Asymmetric

Symmetric type game is a game where the payoffs for playing a particular strategy depend only on the other strategies employed, not on who is playing them. If the identities of the players can be changed without changing the payoff to the strategies, then a game is symmetric.  (Nitisha, 2015)Many of the commonly studied 2×2 games are symmetric. “2×2” games are very simple; they provide diversity with minimum machinery. The strategic situation involves only two people, each with only two alternatives. There are only four possible outcomes and each outcome is described by a single payoff for each player. (Goforth & Robinson, 2005)

Most commonly studied asymmetric games are games where there are not identical strategy sets for both players. (Nitisha, 2015)For instance, the ultimatum game and similarly the dictator game have different strategies for each player. It is possible, however, for a game to have identical strategies for both players, yet be asymmetric. For example, the game pictured to the right is asymmetric despite having identical strategy sets for both players. A good example stated from Nitisha (2015) is that “asymmetric game is the entry of new organization in a market because different organizations adopt different strategies to enter the same market.”